With a view to acquaint the people about the cultural heritage of the region, a site museum named Archaeological Museum Bodhgaya has been set up in 1956 under Archaeological Survey of India by the Govt. of India. The museum consists of two galleries besides an open courtyard.

By far the most remarkable artefacts housed in the museum are stone railing pillars which were originally placed in the Mahabodhi Temple complex. These pillars were constructed in the 1st century B.C. and in the 7th century A.D. The earliest pillars are made of red sandstone with artistically articulated carvings depicting the Sunga Folk Art. On them are found the depiction of the scene related to Jâtaka, flora and fauna, astronomical signs, yakshi, surya, stupa, Bodhi tree, Vajrâsana etc. Amongst these, the most remarkable are depiction of Surya, jâtaka scenes, chaitya, yakshi climbing on tree etc. The granite railing pillars were constructed by the king Purnavarma in the 7th cent. A.D. On them are depicted chaitya, stupa, astronomical motifs, flora and fauna, auspicious sign motifs such as Kiritimukha and cow with calf etc.